Crawdads. Crayfish. Crawfish. Mud bugs. Yabbies. All of these names refer to a 10-legged “mini lobster” that inhabits many of the fresh water ecosystems on our planet outside of India and Antarctica.
What are Crawdads?
Crawdads come in a wide variety of sizes and colors. Of the nearly 600 known species of Decapods, 30% are listed as endangered, and very little is actually known about another 20%. The fish tank trade ships them all over the world with different marketing names like “blue lobsters.” They are an important part of the natural food chain in their NATIVE environments, providing food for raccoons, birds, predatory fish, snakes, and last year people consumed an estimated 75,000 tons of them! To each their own.
Here in Arizona, they are NOT native, but rather were originally imported by early settlers and currently listed by our Arizona Game and Fish Department as “highly invasive.” They are omnivorous and voracious competitors to most of our native freshwater species here. They have decimated the aquatic plant life in many of our mountain streams and they do serious damage to stream banks, causing some major erosion issues.
CAN I PUT CRAWDADS in my PHOENIX Pond?
We do NOT recommend keeping them in your Sonoran Desert backyard pond for a several reasons:
OTHER POSTS YOU MIGHT ENJOY:
WILDLIFE AROUND A POND
FROGS IN A PHOENIX POND
PONDS FOR BIRDS & BUTTERFLIES
Pond Fish Love Air!
Have you ever seen your fish hanging out under your waterfall in your pond? Of course you have! They love the highly oxygenated water provided in that particular spot.
Aeration for your Koi and other pond fish is essential to their health, especially during our long hot summers here in Phoenix. Pond aeration can be accomplished by a properly-built waterfall, a fountain element, or an aeration device.
99.9% of the ponds that we build come with a waterfall, but that may not always be enough. Some folks add an additional fountain element for the aesthetics, but the bonus is that it adds aeration to the pond, as well.
We’ve found aerators to be so beneficial that we’ve started using them as an alternative to floor jets in a pond.
What are the Benefits of an Aerator?
An aerator provides additional life-giving oxygen to your pond. An aerator benefits all aquatic life, from large Koi all the way down to heterotrophic bacteria: the good guys that need to thrive to keep your water crystal clear and healthy for the upper level aquatic life forms. There are no drawbacks.
Aerator vs. Predator
Aerators are also terrific diffusers that can act as predator control. The water disturbance produced by the aerator obscures the view into the pond from would-be predators. But you can control this by simply turning it off when you are outside enjoying the pond. This video shows you how that looks:
How Much Does an Aerator Cost?
Not only is it less expensive to purchase than buying an additional water-moving pump, but it also uses less energy, making it more cost-effective on a daily basis. Basically, it’s less expensive to move air than it is to move water.
The average DIY kit runs somewhere around $175 to $500, depending on pond size. We install professional-level aerators for between $400 and $2500. The professional-level equipment is a more heavy-duty version, including more substantial, weighted plumbing.
All life needs oxygen, and we highly recommend aerator devices on ponds, especially if you have large fish. It’s a life-saver!
You’ve got the water, you’ve got the plants, you’ve got the fish, but something just doesn’t seem right in your aquatic paradise. Something seems to be missing -- something that made every childhood vision of a lily pad complete. What natural ecosystem would be complete without frogs?
Well, besides being just plain cute, there’s a valid reason why you would want frogs and other amphibians hanging out in your pond or water feature. They play an important role in the ecosystem. In fact, the number of amphibians in your pond can be a good indicator of the health of your pond. Ecologists are constantly monitoring the frog population in nature, as they are a first-alarm indicator of a problem in the area.
Say Adios To Insects!
Amphibians are instrumental in keeping the undesirable insect population to a minimum. This is certainly a good thing for your neighboring garden, but also for those lazy summer nights when you want to sit on your deck and not have to worry about pesky bugs bothering you and your guests. Frogs and toads will keep the mosquito population in your yard at bay, and will also help with other annoying pests, like crickets. Since they hunt at night, scorpions & centipedes are absolutely fair game -- and a delicacy!
Having these wonderful creatures around reduces the need for harmful pesticides that conflict with Mother Nature! They are what is known as Integrated Pest Management, which means you can, and need to, stop using chemical controls around your yard. In fact, those will harm the good guys, as well as the unwanted ones.
Water attracts amphibians such as frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts, mostly because they need a place to breed and lay their eggs. Since tadpoles need water to live, it seems only natural that a pond is a great place to raise a frog or toad family.
Keep in mind that tadpoles can be a great snack for your Koi. Water features are often built with a place where the eggs can hatch and mature out of the reach of the hungry Koi. Something like a small, upper pond separated by the main pond with a stream, would do the trick. Just make sure that the force of the waterfall doesn’t push the eggs and tadpoles over the edge toward your fish and mechanical filtration system. The force of the pump inside the skimmer could pull your tadpoles straight into it. While tadpoles have been known to make it through the pump unharmed, it can be a wild, shocking ride for them.
Certain species of salamanders also need water in which to breed and raise their young (referred to as larvae). So, come breeding time, you may see these salamanders by your pond as well.
Newts spend half of their lives in water and then, as adults, retreat to land. These part-time pond inhabitants have an interesting way of caring for their unborn. When the eggs are laid, the female wraps each sticky-coated egg in a leaf or other similar material using her hind legs. With as many as 600 eggs per year, it may take her as many as two months to produce her annual clutch.
Going the Extra Mile
Amphibians are complex and need a little more than water to make your pond their permanent home.
Boggy Areas: Biologists suggest a boggy area full of plants to keep them safe and happy in your yard. Local wetlands are great places to check out when looking to mimic the right environment.
Aquatic plants: Plants are very important because they provide food and shelter for both tadpoles and adults, and a breeding site for adults. If you let areas of your garden grow a little wild, it will also provide a shady place for amphibians to relax and cool off.
Permanent Shelter: A well-located rock pile can lure toads, salamanders, and newts to your pond. These small piles can also be made out of bricks or broken concrete. The rock pile should receive both sun and shade, and here in the desert, you’ll want to put the pile in a mostly shady spot.
A ToadalLy Bright Idea!
Frog and toad lovers suggest using a light to draw these adorable creatures to your pond at night. Some people put lights up in their yard to accentuate their evening landscape or to keep animals away. However, for frog and toad enthusiasts, the exact opposite is true. The light should be set no more than 3 feet above ground, and placed near the garden. Insects are attracted to the light, giving your toads and frogs a great place to feed at night.
If You Build It, They Will Come -- And Stay
It is very important that your pond get the right amount of sunlight and shade for your new inhabitants. They need a little of both to keep their body temperatures in check. Since all of these animals love playing around in muck and debris, a perfectly manicured lawn is not their cup of tea. Leaving some tree, shrub, and garden litter out so that they have something to burrow through will help keep them safe from predators.
While they need damp conditions, some frogs can actually drown in water. Make sure that your pond has shelves, complete with rocks and gravel, so you don’t have steep edges. Remember, once they take a dip in the pond, you want to make sure they have a way out and steep edges can be deadly to them. A piece of driftwood hanging in a shallow portion of the pond can make a great dry resting spot for your favorite creatures too. And if you have a larger pond, a floating platform in the middle of the pond anchored to something is a great idea. Salamanders and newts are especially fond of cool, damp spots under logs.
Be cautious when handling these creatures. Some species of amphibians have poison in their skin glands, which can be harmful to you, your children, and your pets. Our touch can be a danger to them, as well. The oils and lotions we have on our hands could be harmful to certain amphibians.
You Can’t Lead A Frog To Water
It’s great to want frogs, toads, and salamanders in your pond to complete an ecosystem, but you should be patient. Don’t go to a store and purchase these animals to put into your pond. In many places, it is illegal to release certain species into the wild because they are detrimental to native plants and animals. In fact, Arizona Game & Fish highly discourages Bull Frogs. Chances are that they will not stay at your pond, and they may not survive in the wild. And by no means do we suggest that you go to a local pond or wetland and catch these animals to bring back to your pond, either – it’s never a good idea to remove them from their habitat because they will undoubtedly try to return to their place of origin and get killed along the way.
Creating A “Winter” Wonderland
In the winter, frogs are attracted to water and they will even over-winter in your pond. One of the myths out there is that frogs need to be in water that is at least 6 feet deep in order to hibernate. Not true! As long as you have mud for them to burrow in, whether it is a deep plant pocket or a potted plant, they’ll be just fine. Make sure the plant pocket or pot is deep enough to keep them away from cold temperatures. If your pond is shelved, they’ll probably go for the pot or plant pocket on the deepest shelf.
So, how do they keep from freezing? Simple: they are ectotherms, regulating their body temperatures largely by exchanging heat with their surroundings. The soil in the plant pocket or pot keeps the frogs nice and warm throughout the winter. Leaving some string algae in your pond over the winter months gives them a nice blankie to snuggle down in, too. It might be a bit unsightly to you, but the amphibians love it!
It’s always helpful to read up on any animals that you are trying to attract to your backyard paradise, so be sure to stop at the bookstore or library and pick up some materials. The more educated you are, the better off you’ll be in the long run. Get ready, because once you get these creatures in your yard, you’re never going to want to let go!
Learn more about The Pond Gnome's services:
Did you know that there are 950,000 species of insects? And that most of those are beneficial to our environment or food for other beneficial critters? Most people are really only trying to kill about 10 unwanted insects in their yard. When you take that into account, does it really make sense to broadcast poison over your entire property? And if you have beloved pets, that can be a serious issue! Let’s take a look at another option for the common “pest.”
This little blood-sucker is probably the most despised pest on the list. It’s been known to carry all kinds of diseases, and many people have a very bad reaction to the anti-clotting agent that they introduce when they bite. Would it surprise you to learn that a single dragonfly can eat its own body weight of these insects in just 30 minutes? Damselflies, too. And where would you find such great allies for your outdoor environment? Hanging out around a living water feature (pond, waterfall, stream), of course! Many biologists agree that a well-built ecosystem pond is actually the cure for the West Nile Virus!
In the Far East, it’s considered good luck to have a cricket in your house, and very bad luck to kill one, even by accident. But here in the States, we don’t really adhere to that superstition. So, what do we do about those? Well, frogs and toads LOVE crickets. And where can you find those? Hanging out around a living water feature (pond), of course!
Yikes! No one likes these guys around the house! Even our cat isn’t real fond of them. But scorpions are actually pretty resistant to the common pest controls out there, despite advertising claims to the contrary. So, what now? Believe it or not: frogs and toads. And where can you find those? Hanging out around a living water feature (pond), of course! Are you sensing a theme yet?
That covers the three top hated insects. There are others, but they can all be hunted and eaten by cool critters that will live around your yard happily if you have the right environment for them (pond, waterfall, stream, etc.).
Here are some great resources to learn more about integrated pest management:
For more general information on insects in Arizona:
Insects of the Southwest by Floyd Werner, Phh.D. & Carl Olson, M.S.
Draongflies & Damselflies of the Southwest by Robert A. Behrstock
Curl up with a Good Brook!
Who doesn't love to hang out next to a babbling brook? It's such a soothing and relaxing sound! Sometimes, a waterfall is just too much sound if you have a quiet little yard. And maybe you don't want a pond for whatever reason. A re-circulating disappearing pondless stream is a great landscape idea!
Backyard Design Ideas for Streams
Streams are SO versatile! Here is just a small list of benefits to landscape ideas for streams to "wet" your appetite:
OTHER POSTS YOU MIGHT ENJOY:
GREAT WATER FEATURE IDEAS
LANDSCAPE IDEAS FOR WATERFALLS
LANDSCAPE IDEAS USING FOUNTAINS
LANDSCAPE IDEAS USING PONDS
For more great backyard landscape ideas, check out our friends at Planted Well!